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Infinitiv mit zu

learning target

Aim of this topic is to speak about "infinitive + to" -structures.



Es ist schön, dich zu kennen.
Ich bin hier, um sie zu sehen.
Sie ist gegangen, ohne ein Wort zu sagen.

It's nice to know you.
I'm here to see her.
She is gone without saying a word.


The "infinitive + to" -structure is a kind of "attachment" of the main sentence to provide
additional information or to complete the idea of the main sentence.

The use of the "infinitive + to" -structure is in German and English almost the same.
There are some little differences, however.

"Infinitive + to" -structures of "normal" verbs

The "infinitive + to" -structure of "normal" verbs is just added to the main sentence:
main sentence + (object) + "zu" + verb


"Infinitive + to" -structures of separable verbs

In "Infinitive + to" -structures of separable verbs the "zu" goes between the prefix and the stem:
main sentence + (object) + prefix+zu+stem


The introducing preposition: "um", "ohne" and "anstatt"

By now we just spoke about the simple infinitives.
More often, however, the infinitive structures start with one of the three propositions:

When do you have to start an "infinitive + to" -structure with "um"?

You have to the "infinitive + to" -structure with "um" whenever it expresses a purpose -
that means whenever you could add in English "in order".


As you can see in the examples above you would leave out "in order" in English. It sounds a bit odd.
In German, however, you must use "um".

"ohne" and "anstatt"

The use of "ohne" and "anstatt" is easy and becomes clear if you read the examples.



The comma placement

If there is more than just the "infinitive + to" -structure after the main sentence,
then put a comma after the main sentence.




Infinitiv mit "zu" 1


tom homework




summary - documents for your folder

Infinitiv mit "zu" (theory, 2 pages)